Pollinators and their importances
In nature, there are about 352,000 species of flowering plants that rely on pollinators to reproduce. About 75% of plant species globally have increased yield and quality when pollinated by animals. In the wild, there are not only insects and birds that pollinate plants, but also bats, reptiles, and even primates.
Factors of pollination

Plant characteristics such as different shapes, sizes, colors, scents, and nectar will attract different pollinators. In addition, environmental factors such as altitude, temperature, light, and humidity also influence pollinators’ foraging behavior (Faheem et al., 2004).

Animal as pollinator

In the wild, there are not only insects and birds that pollinate plants, but also bats, reptiles, and even primates. As the study by Gomes et al in 2014 has a record of the lizard species (Tropidurus semitaeniatus) support populations Melocactus ernestii (Cactaceae) pollinate. Or research by Kress et al. in 1994 has recognized the lemur (Varecia variegata) as a primate that helps pollinate plants Ravenala madagascariensis.

The characteristics of plants such as shape, size, color, scent, and nectar of different flowers will attract different pollinators. In addition, environmental factors such as altitude, temperature, light, and humidity also influence pollinators’ foraging behavior (Faheem et al., 2004).

Bat pollination on durian
Benefits of pollinator

The relationship between flowering plants and pollinators is an essential factor contributing to the diversification of angiosperm (van der Niet & Johnson, 2012), this biological interaction is the basis for the evolution of flower characteristics in response to natural selection and is called the pollination syndrome (Proctor et al., 1996). Not only do pollinators play an important role in the ecosystem but also supplies value to human such as biofuels, drugs, food, and construction materials (Potts et al., 2016).

Recently, the declining number of pollinators has raised concerns about the loss of animal pollination, creating a “pollination crisis” for wild plant populations (Waser & Forrest, 2014).

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